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READING PASSAGE #2
This passage is adapted from a speech given by President Woodrow Wilson to Congress on January 8, 1918. Here Wilson proposes a 14-point program for world peace.
These 14 points became the basis for peace negotiations at the end of World War I.
It will be our wish and purpose that the processes of peace, when they are begun, shall be absolutely open and that they shall involve and permit henceforth no secret understandings of any kind. The day of conquest and aggrandizement is gone by; so is also the day of secret covenants entered into in the interest of particular govern- ments and likely at some unlooked-for moment to upset the peace of the world. It is this happy fact, now clear to the view of every public man whose thoughts do not still linger in an age that is dead and gone, which makes it possible for every nation whose purposes are consistent with justice and the peace of the world to avow now or at any other time the objects it has in view.
We entered this war because violations of right had occurred which touched us to the quick and made the life of our own people impossible unless they were corrected. . . . What we demand in this war, therefore, is nothing peculiar to ourselves. It is that the world be made fit and safe to live in; and particularly that it be made safe for every peace- loving nation which, like our own, wishes to live its own life, determine its own institutions, be assured of justice and fair dealing by the other peoples of the world. . . . The programme of the world’s peace, therefore, is our programme; and that programme, the only possible programme, as we see it, is this:
I. Open covenants of peace . . . with no private international understandings of any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view.
II. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas . . . alike in peace and in war, except as the seas may be closed in whole or in part by international action for the enforcement of international covenants.
III. The removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers and the establishment of an equality of trade conditions among all the nations consenting. . . .
IV. Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety.
V. A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims. . . .
VI. The evacuation of all Russian territory and such a settlement of all questions affecting Russia as will secure the best and freest cooperation of the other nations of the world.
VII. Belgium . . . must be evacuated and restored, without any attempt to limit the sovereignty which she enjoys in common with all other free nations. . . .
VIII. All French territory should be freed and the invaded portions restored. . . .
IX. A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be effected along clearly recognizable lines of nationality.
X. The peoples of Austria-Hungary . . . should be accorded the freest opportunity to autonomous development.
XI. Rumania, Serbia, and Montenegro should be evacuated; occupied territories restored; and Serbia accorded free and secure access to the sea. . . .
XII. The Turkish portion of the present Ottoman Empire should be assured a secure sovereignty, but the other nationalities which are now under Turkish rule should be assured an undoubted security of life. . . .
XIII. An independent Polish state should be erected which should include the territories inhabited by indisputably Polish populations. . . . should be assured a free and secure access to the sea. . . .
XIV. A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.
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Question 1 of 9
Based on the first two paragraphs, which choice best identifies Wilson’s purpose in making this speech?Correct
Examine the first two paragraphs. Try to paraphrase the reason Wilson gives for making the speech. In the first two paragraphs, Wilson anticipates the end of the war and alludes to the “processes of peace” (line 2). Although he refers to national sovereignty and conquest, he states that his purpose is to lay out a program for peace in the world, making (C) the correct answer.
Question 2 of 9
Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?Correct
Remember that the correct answer will provide information that directly relates to the answer to the previous question. The correct answer to the previous question concerns Wilson’s plan to maintain peaceful relations in the world. Lines 26-27 read, “The programme of the world’s peace, therefore, is our programme,” making (D) the correct answer.
Question 3 of 9
As used in line 31, “frankly” most nearly meansCorrect
Predict a word that could substitute for “frankly” in context. In the list of points he presents, Wilson is defining actions and policies that will promote peace and open communication among nations. In this context, “frankly” suggests honesty, which makes (A) the correct answer.
Question 4 of 9
Based on the information in the passage, it can reasonably be inferred that in the past,Correct
Eliminate answer choices that cannot be inferred by the information provided in the passage. Calling for an end to “private international understandings” is one of Wilson’s 14 points (lines 29-30). Therefore, it can be inferred that in the past, certain nations did indeed form “secret covenants” (line 6), or pacts, with one another. Choice (B) is correct.
Question 5 of 9
Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?Correct
The correct answer will reference a detail that provides evidence for the answer to the previous question. In the first paragraph of his speech, Wilson refers to “secret understandings” that cannot exist anymore if there is to be peace among nations. Therefore, (A) is correct.
Question 6 of 9
As used in line 44, “consistent” most nearly meansCorrect
Pretend the word is a blank in the sentence. Then predict what word could be substituted for the blank. The sentence states that “national armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety” (lines 43-44). In this sense, Wilson aims to assure nations that they will still be able to protect themselves. Predict that armaments will be reduced to an extent agreeable with maintaining their own safety. (C) is the correct choice.
Question 7 of 9
In lines 45-46 (“ A free . . . colonial claims”), Wilson argues that to preserve peace, nations mustCorrect
Though the question is asking you about a specific line, it makes sense to choose an answer that is compatible with the broader context of the passage. In the excerpted line, Wilson identifies the “adjustment of all colonial claims” (line 46) as an item in his program for world peace. If his goal is to safeguard world peace, this must mean he believes conflicts resulting from colonization, itself an imperial pursuit, must be addressed. Choice (D) is correct.
Question 8 of 9
Points VI through VIII serve as evidence to support which claim made by Wilson throughout the speech?Correct
Locate the three points to which the question refers. Do not confuse them with other numbered points in the speech. Points VI through VIII refer to territorial sovereignty, evacuation of occupied lands, and restoration of lands. These points align with the claim that nations have violated one another’s territorial sovereignty through invasion and occupation. This makes (C) the correct answer.Incorrect
Question 9 of 9
Which of the following approaches to international relations is most similar to Wilson’s approach?Correct
Be sure that the answer you choose reflects the ideology and positions expressed by Wilson in his speech. In the passage, Wilson expresses that he is in favor of international cooperation to promote and sustain global peace. Choice (B) is the correct answer because it describes an approach to international relations that is analogous to Wilson’s.